how to waterproof a wooden structure for a hot tub How to build a 'Skin on Frame' boat - and why

by:ALPHA     2019-07-02
how to waterproof a wooden structure for a hot tub How to build a \'Skin on Frame\' boat - and why
Ernie's "skin on the frame" proposal.The skin on the frame boat building can be one of the fastest and most satisfying skillsYou can do rich projects.It teaches you the basic skills to build almost any wooden boat.It's not that hard, and you don't need to have the skills to do the job already.
.This is the most basic list you need to build your skin on a frame kayak.time.knife.saw.Something used to drill holes.string.A plan.Frame (Wood) material.Skin material (nylon canvas now ).A bit different from the list of tools that most projects need.With these things, plus a little care, you can build a light, strong, seaworthy ship (at least as seaworthy as its plan and owner ).
The down-One side of using the most basic tools is: you pay in time (\ until you are skilled enough to make the most of each tool ).A good book is a handy thing for your first ship.Even if you are attending a workshop, it is good to have a book.
You can read the whole description and know what will happen next so that you can complete each step with more confidence.Building Skin-on-Robert MorrisMost books about building skinon-Frame boats have plans, tools and methods developed by the author for a particular type of kayak or boat.Mr., step-by-Step description.He won't stop on the kayak either.He went to Europe.Boat of style (all skinon-Framework) so that you can learn from each type.
Any book will teach you what works for most different skinson-frame boats.There are many kinds, from the "sneak attack on koryak" to the big umiak.For those who want to expand or don't like the appearance of certain kayaks, you can try Mr.
Zimmerlie's website.
Explore this website, it is more than people think.There's also a nice museum here-http://www.Traditional just mentioned it for inspiration.You don't need bones.To make a viable boat, you may not want to try it for the first time in so many surfing!http://www.
More information and stepsby-https://www.
Org is also the skin of most of us.
on-Our thing is the framework builder.
Fabrics, muscles, dyes, other materials, plans, books, etc.(Unless you can find the walrus or have a local manufacturer give you insider trading.On average, you can spend about $300 on skin materials (fabrics, stitching bands and polyurethane, optional dyes)sized kayak.
Frame materials can usually be found locally, can be found from the timber yard or from the supply of buildings (see notes below), or ribs can be obtained by harvesting your own green oak or willow tree.The wood on board includes white oak, cedar, spruce and tropical hard wood.Avoid quick-If you can, rotten wood like Ash, cotton or fir.
They are better than doing nothing, but in order to avoid decay, your boat may need to be carefully dried for storage.Seriously, that's all it is.Make a plan, get the material, and start.But it's good for your have to finish it first, so I'll give you some more advice.Choose a plan: the shape of the ship determines how it is handled and what you can do with it.
The wide flat boat is stable in the water, but can be slow or harder to drive.(The wind can also push them easily ).Long and narrow boats are good for long distances and speeds, but more skills are needed to balance.Shorter boats, as well as some plump football-shaped boats, for fastRiver kayaking turns and popularity.
People who like to go out for some purpose (hunting, bird watching, cargo/camping/tourism) may need a larger volume or additional storage on board.Some designs have a flat deck behind the padd hand that can be tied there.It is better to use a proven plan (many styles have been tested for thousands of years );Avoid mixing functions.
A classic mistake for beginners is to think "it would be safer if I made both sides of the boat higher!\ "However, the higher sides make it more difficult for the paddle to reach the water and more likely to turn over.-If the cockpit does not have the right size yet, you may want to adjust the size of the cockpit (the ring around the kayak opening) to fit the standard spray skirt.-It is OK to add "skegs" or small frictionStripes attached to the outside with stitching or aquarium cement.
These can include a long outer keel if you want a straight onesteering boat.-Whether or not you have a gear belt in your original design, you can connect to the top deck.If you are dealing with other gear, the gear belt or bungies allows you to put the paddle somewhere and can help you with yourselfRescue (pass the paddle through the strap like a leg, if any, there is a float at the end to help keep the boat upright as you climb back ).
Straight PickTextured wood, Cedar if you can get it.The grain stacked vertically or flat is the best.(Not diagonal like other carpentry projects.
) See how it bends in the yard and ask "Does it want to be a ship ?"?\ "Allow an additional 10% increase in scrap.We made some nice kayaks with two long 2x 4S and a table saw.Soak for a night whether you're steaming ribs or not to get decent flexibility.
Especially cedar.
Oak will also become brittle after cooling from steam, so a large amount of extra rib material is allowed during installation.Follow the steps-by-Step instructions from your book or workshop.(The example photo shows how to tie different knots, etc.
If your teacher and the book, or any of the two sources, say two different things: they may all be right.Pick one and stick to it.You don't learn a lot from never making mistakes.Continue to do some while building these ships.
You can test them before you do the most expensive parts (Skins.Wrap the frame with a palette-wrap or Syran-wrap.Take it out and float.If you test on the beach, all you worry about is getting wet.
1) collect materials, allow an additional 10% to 25% for scrap and breakage.Get your wooden parts ready.For example, baidarka has several parts that make up the mouth;\ 'These can be cut from sea or ACX plywood, board or driftwood.Cut Rod and Stern (front and rear) parts according to size, as well as all deck/upper frame.
Try to separate or tear your long slices with grain as much as possible.Sand or plane on the edge.Don't bend the ribs yet.You may wishInstall the parts before drilling.3) drill any parts that need to be drilled to tie-Usually the rod (front), Stern (rear), Keel (bottom center) and gun hole (top/side-Also spell "gunwale") cross with Upper DeckFramework (masiq, etc ).
In order to accept the ribs, a gun hole is required.Depending on your ribs, this will be a slot (insert router, or drill bit and chisel) or a lot of round holes if a circular sapling/shoots are used.The old traditional design may have shallow slots: the rib end is pierced and tied to the appropriate position before using the steel tool, not the pinand-tennon fit.
For each rib, the hole needs to be completely opposite.This is the simplest pre-Drill holes before you assemble the ship.Clip gun holes side by side (shown on top and bottom) as if they were a long board.
Mark the deck board position (avoid drilling here twice if possible, especially near the center of the ship ).Mark your rib pattern with a square at the bottom of the two funnels and place them in the exact opposite position.Stout green-The oak ribs may be spaced about 6 "apart, each 3" or 4 "may have 3/8" round ribs.
Drill two gun holes before the UN.
(Be careful to plug in straight and not drill out the wood diagonally ).Leave enough meat on each side (minimum 1/4) and drill in no more than half of the barrel to prevent the barrel from bending or breaking near the hole.(You may want to mark the depth of the drill hole as a line on the side of the tunnel for later use.
4) whip lash with barrel, Keel, gun rod and stern.These parts establish the main shape of the ship.Each of them forces others to bend and form a stiff "Truss" that gives the ship strength.
Traditional reinforcement of ancient structures-Style boats usually use V-to-Y or IIto-X shape.You start with a few straight lanes and then tighten them by packing many half way "French spiral" or "Dragon staircase"Mainly tied around.5) take a step back to make sure the boat is fair (symmetrical, smooth curves ).
If one cannon bend more than the other, try to see why.Turn the boat over and take it outside...Is the whole boat bent, or is it not bent by a battery?You may need to shorten the channel to bend more, or more likely, you may need to drop the plane, or steam the hard channel to bend it more.Do your best to treat it fairly, but do not remove materials that exceed 1/8 or 3/16 (2mm.
6) wedge the upper frame (masiq, etc) in place and check for fairness.If you have a "bend" place or the battery is slightly bentZag, check to make sure you add plate A in the right order and at the right distance.You may need to move the deck a little (up to 1/2/1 cm), or along the angle of the deck frame, where it meets the cannon path a little (up to 1/8 ), to get a fair curve.
Check the gun hole and Keel again-They should still be fair (smooth curves, symmetrical, straight forward keel-Direction and smooth curve if you look from the side ).7) prepare to steam the cockpit and ribs.Cockpit: some ships are designed to use laminated wooden cockpit while others use steamBend a ring and then add a rope to the spray's lipsskirt clips on.We often steam-Bend and stitch together several wooden rings to form a tall edge and a built-inout lip.
No matter what method, you should have a suitable size lip for your spray skirt (borrow a standard lip to check if you like ).It should be strong and not too heavy.The edge of your cockpit may not be less than 1/4 "(.5 cm) thick, even in the thinnest part.It needs to take your weight and beat a bit, so beef it up if it looks too delicate.
Ribs: estimate the length of the ribs by bending a very thin piece of wood (or a rope) where each rib is located.If this is your first steamed boat ribs, please cut the pieces generouslyGrow up about 4 "to 6" than your longest rib (in the middle of the boat ".Experienced builders may find it more convenient to cut each rib into a precise length before steaming, but don't make them too short!Start with steamed and renovated central ribs.
Fragments broken during installation are still useful for the shortest ribs of the stem and stern.Soak your wood and heat the steamer.(You can build a steam box with 4 pieces of 1x6 \ "fence boards, a teapot, a camping stove, some towels and some heating --Hose resistant or borrow/rent a hose long enough to support your ribs ).Transfer 1 or 2 ribs to the Steam Box.Let them steam to soft (1/4 of the ribs take about 15 minutes depending on the wood and humidity ).
Most people will want gloves, and some people will want help from friends when they take the ribs out of the Steam Box.Old sailors and old carpenters may prefer to handle them with bare hands to feel the softness of the wood.The spring fixture (many) is convenient for the next step.
The boat was very close to the Steam Box, took out the first rib and immediately bent it to the inside of the ship.Clip the middle to the keel (inside) and clip the end to the inside of the gun hole.Make sure it has a nice smooth curveIf it looks too straight on one side, push some more material from that battery and re-clamp.
It's better to be a little longer than a little shorter unless you invent a board --stretcher.If your rib is cut to a certain length, wedge it into the hole now.To trim, mark the sides as the length (in the middle of the barrel), then trim to the length and wedge it into the hole.
If it doesn't fit, you can fly down or wedge it with debris.You will drill and whip lash on these ribs to make the wedge long enough to drill and whip lash, and it will stay still.Continue the other ribs in the same way, work in the center first, then work a few forward and backward at a time.
Do not steam more ribs at a time in about 15 minutes;If the wood is cooked for more than 30 minutes, it loses its elasticity and becomes brittle when dry.It's common to break a few ribs-Sometimes more than a few-while fitting.Some fragments can be used for ribs with shorter ends.
For very sharp angles, such as the front of the Greenland kayak, it may be acceptable to use two instead of bending one rib on the last 1 or 2 ribs.Practice and whip lash your ribs if needed in your design.8) place the long dragons (Chin) outside the ribs and start tying them together.
Ernie prefers the traditional running box tie (the tie line does not cut between the ribs and it extends along the inside of the long piece from the ribs to the ribs ).Other builders teach other pull rings, such as square knots, to go straight forward, but to relax a little over time.(I would like to know if part of this difference is that the supplier prefers to use less wires insteadThe sailor is reluctant to cut a wire and he may need to clean it up for emergency repairs on a certain day.
Box Binding: When you start the rope at the intersection of the rib and the long rope, take halfRope around the ribs.The exterior of the outer part and the interior of the inner part are simply excessiveIn mode, 3x.Then tighten this slightly by bypassing the binding 3x-Under the outer film, on the inner film.
(If there is no original binding, this package will slide and separate between the wood pieces ).You can tighten this.wrap with half-You can hang something for extra safety if you want (kind of like a button stem ).Don't pull it too tightly, it will separate the wood or cut into the wood --You just want to tie these two pictures together.
Complete in halfTie around the ribs and continue to the next intersection.9) Fair check.You want a nice and full boat with no hollow area where the ribs collapse.It should be symmetrical and the keel is straight.
This is where people start taking pictures and putting their heads into the boat \ "Oh!10) Seat-Test the boat at this point, check the performance and cockpit position.Tie the cockpit roughly-Whip lash to the nearest deck beam and tie some tension on each channel.Pack the whole boat with palettewrap or syran-Package, at least 2 to 3 layers thick and use it as a test paddle.
(Prepare to swim if it leaks-PFD etc.
Are your legs and feet fit in?Is it a straight line?Turn well?Can you cross it to the beach?Do you like the way it floats?You can still make adjustments at this stage before committing to permanent skin.For example, if the boat is too tender for your skill level, you can widen the boat a little by moving the deck beam forward and backward by a 2 inch, and then re-Cut the main deck beam in front of the cockpit and behind the cockpit.You may need to do it again.Install the ribs for such a major adjustment.
This is a lot of work-Unless you have a medical balance problem, you may be surprised at how fast you can keep your balance on a narrow, fast ship.Especially when you build the confidence to use it at a design speed.Long-Kayaks run faster than most people.If you want 1 feet-Rest on the convenient ribs, tie some seat plates in the ribs, or rest on the back, you can add these when appropriatetest.
You can adjust the decoration of the ship, sideto-side and front-to-Back on board, where is your weight.Adjust the position of the cockpit to center your own weight (or any cargo you usually carry) with respect to the buoyancy center of the ship.(Don't worry about the meaning of these terms, just move around before it floats to the right and then adjust the position of the cockpit as needed.
There are the most people on board.
However, if you are a canoe person who wants to kneel down, or you may lend the boat to a smaller person, you can walk around and see what works.You can even add a gear hatch or a second cockpit for the primary passenger or waterloving pup.Test all of these changes to make sure you can balance the boat the way you want to use it.
When you are satisfied with the performance of the ship, it is time to have a permanent skin.We use ballistic nylon canvas and for most kayaks, the weight ranges from 6 lbs to 12 lbs, which is larger for large ships like umiak.Heavier nylon canvas can provide more durability and hardnessWeering performance, but more polyurethane is also needed to fill in to make the boat load heavier.
If you would like to use something other than ballistic nylon canvas, see the note at the end.11) wrap the skin on board.Start in the middle, align the CrossFabric texture with central rib and straight line of AQSIQ.Nail (a few needles loose) to the lower part of the cockpit and check the fit at both ends.
If you follow your design carefully, you should have enough fabric to extend a few inches at each end.From the center, make a huge zig-"Assembly stitching" along the upper deck ".Sew a needle on the fabric1/4 to 1/2 \ "needles, inches apart-On one side of the barrel, then across the opposite side pick up a similar needle and come back a few inches later to grab the other needle on the first side.
You will tighten the fabric by grabbing underneath the ship's rail and pulling it tight, just like tying your shoelaces.You will also make a fitted stich (straight seam) at the boat pole and stern ).Adjust your fitting stitching until the sides of the boat look beautiful, tight, full, no wrinkles or loose/drooping parts.
When you are satisfied with the skin, fasten the muscles that fit and start stitching the seams on the top.Make things tighter and more manageable-When you paint the nylon canvas, it doesn't shrink tighter and may even drooping slightly.If the seam expands here and there it doesn't matter at all, it just adds the look of "nature" and "manual.
The key part of performance is smooth stretch skin under water.We usually do straight seams in front --to-Behind, stem and stern.Decorative nylon fabric with heatThe knife is about 1 1/2 \ "(3 cm) away from the seam, then roll the edges over and sew next to the seam to get a neat doubleseam look.
The position of the fabric on the diagonal, you may have to re-Trim to avoid bunching, or just tolerate a little swing in the seams.(If you feel fancy, you can roll an edge inside another seam like the old waterproof leather seam, but it's hard to tighten, when using fabric and polyurethane, waterproof is not important.You also need to attach the skin to the cockpit and you should have holes in front of the cockpitDrill holes in the lower part of the rim.
Make sure that the canvas does not pile up where it may break the seal on your spray skirt --You will want about 1/2 of the clear space, like the "slot" on the spray skirt.Before stitching to the cockpit, you can flip the edge of the canvas over so you can sew it by double or triple the fabric to avoid any clutter in the area where you handle the most shipsIf you have extra cockpit or gear hatch, sew them the same way.12) dye the fabric with a compatible dye if required.
(You will have white to white without dye-White translucent boat, you may bleedIf the canvas is stained with wood or a rope, it can be worn through.) Some people like to go to some special effects like one or twoTone or handprint.Remember that the dye will bleed so you don't have sharp lines;Do not use fabric paint as they interfere with the sealing device.
The solid color looks elegant and shows the pattern of the ribs through translucent skin, which is the easiest to do.Let the dye dry completely.13) apply your sealant on the outside of the clean, dry, fully finished fabric surface on board.Most builders use 2-Partial polyurethane (Verithane) that needs to be mixed in small quantities before applying ).
Don't mix more at a time than you can use.Prepare these things if you want to be waterproof with leftovers.(Small gear bag, driving hatch or something.
) You can polyurethane wood cockpit edge on the rope if needed.Other deck gears/ropes should not be in place yet and will not be removed.Polyurethane sticks to itself only when it is not fully cured, so ideally you will make two or three coats, about 4 to 12 hours apart.
Applying the first coat gently is enough to saturate the canvas and may pile up in it, but will not let you stick the canvas to the frame.Let the first coating solidify until it is no longer gray/tacky and apply the second coating immediately.The first coat is padded with weaving, and the second coat should be padded with weaving, lying on it to make the surface smooth and feel like plastic or leather instead of a woven canvas texture.
The third coating can remedy any "thirsty" place and allow additional thickness for future wear or sanding and painting.14) deck gear, ske, etc: most traditional kayaks have leather thong with bone or ivory slider and small bone "ske" hanging on long Dragon ", usually in the place where two sealing skins meet to protect the seams from wear and tear.Modern kayaks may have ropes or bungee deck fixtures, and some have external wooden keels or small ske to protect the fabric from excessive wear and tear on the rocky beach.
The deck gear should be secured to the passage or deck beam by drilling through the skin and wood and knotting the rope inside the beam (or using some bungee plug hardware.If you fit the size of the hole, a digital eight knot will become a quick plug knot.Skegs can be drilled, stitched and filled/waterproof with aquarium cement, and can also be bonded with cement for temporary/installation experiments.
Polyurethane ballistic nylon is a hard thing.You should get years or decades of fun from the wellbuilt skin-on-frame boat.When not in use, keep the polyurethane away from direct sunlight to extend the service life.
Most paint doesn't stick well on polyurethane, but if you want to try your luck with compatible paint on the road, you can polish the polyurethane a little.Color paint will further protect the skin from UV rays.If you do have bad wear points, knife openings, leaking seams, or need to be repaired in the damaged part, you can use aquarium cement (a silicone cauldron for full soaking)You can do a little bit of baseball.
Sew and apply with aquarium cement.
For larger wear points or the actual holes that are missing the fabric, you can patch like a patch on the garment, polyurethane patch, seal the edges if needed;Or pre-Use aquarium cement to close the canvas part of the edge.The patch under the water pipe may slightly affect the performance of the ship.If the skin is damaged and cannot be repaired, or the boat is crushed (do not over-Tighten the ratchet belt when pulling!), Or you just want to replace a dirty sunDamaged skin with hot new color, you can remove and replace the skin.
Cut the skin for free (save any good parts for the patch if you like ).If the polyurethane sticks to the wood, trim it off with a knife or cabinet scraper, be careful not to cut any lashings nearby.Repair or replace any damaged wooden partsUse eyelashes where needed, sew new skin as described above.
You will get a lot of dull people when you are rowing the boatEspecially when the sun is behind you, it shows rich colors and beautiful rib structure through translucent skin!Elasticity of the skinon-The frame design allows them to ride more comfortably on the waves and chop, and it's a good thing if your admirers are sitting around on a motorboat.Animal skin: seals for traditional Arctic shipsThe skin of the kayak, the sea elephant is hidden for the larger umiak.The sea elephant is thick and similar to plywood ).
These materials are not legally available to most people now.If you are a member of a tribe that still has a hunting marine mammal permit, talk to your Hunter about the availability of seal skin, who may know the correct treatment for seal skin.Alternatives like cowhide or deer skin can rot badly in the water, and all types of leather shrink when wet and dry repeatedly.
Many museum specimens and reproductions were crushed by their own skin without proper maintenance.If you want to use authentic leather, you can plan to untie the skin every winter, check and repair the leather and then re-During the spring boating season, the skin is tied to the boat.This is the tradition of the Arctic;\"freeze-Drying conditions may also help prevent excessive shrinkage of the skin and the vessel.
Most leather products handle water better if oily.Natural/animal oil, or good boot grease or mink oil, can work for you as long as it doesn't damage the sewing thread.Avoid oilOil mainly nylon or latex, usually leather.
Fish skin: salmon skin, big hali fish, sturgeon fish, etc.In the Arctic, the bottom fish with skin is sometimes used as a waterproof appliance.We didn't try to use these skins on kayaks, but it could be a fun project if you live near the cannery.
The fish skin needs to be cured, stretched and oiled like the animal skin, but they can be more delicate and timely --Sensitive to work.I don't know if positioning the balance carefully will bring you a "shark"Skin effects like Olympic bathing suits?Cotton canvas or other natural fabrics: you can use plants-There is also heavy paint (such as asphalt or deck paint) if you want ).They may be more vulnerable to damage, including rot, damage to the sun and physical shock and wear, and paint may wear and pollute the waterways.
Natural fabrics can shrink or relax when painting (depending on the fabric, paint and weather), so before sewing on the canvas, consider stretching a little sample on the frame for testing.The shrinking fabric (such as cotton) needs to be slightly loose and sewn;Super drooping fabric should be sewntight.Considering the huge cost of any shipAny size of the canvas, we tend to order something that lasts (ballistic nylon canvas ).
Does not work: Poly tarp (e.
Blue waterproof cloth), \ "water-Resistance to "fabric that is not actually waterproof;Synthetic fabric or sewing thread that is not compatible with your sealer (some synthetic materials melt when in contact with the sealer or paint )
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