sauna steam bath machine online contributions of ancient arabian and egyptian scientists ...

by:ALPHA     2019-06-29
sauna steam bath machine online contributions of ancient arabian and egyptian scientists ...
Modern physics is based on the discovery and thinking of people in the historical era.If no one knows the basis and work of the previous topic, he or she can develop a new idea or discovery.Because a civilization must know its past.
Therefore, the current work is only to find out the contributions of ancient Arab and Egyptian scientists in the fields of physics and technology.Different scientists of different schools, linking physics as the main subject, are described in this study.Key words: Arab and Egyptian scientists, physics, technology Muslim scientists have conducted in-depth research on the basic problems of physics.
For example, Ibn Sina conducted in-depth research on the phenomena of force, motion, light, heat, vacuum, etc.Great progress has been made in theory and applied mechanics.Useful work has been done in the field of wheel, shaft, lever, pulley, Bevel, windmill, water mechanicsWheels, gears, etc.
Physicists and AstronomersHarcini wrote a book about mechanics, fluid mechanics, and physics called Kitab Mizan al-The Book of Balance of Wisdom is the most outstanding work of the Middle Ages on these subjects.It gives the theory of the Earth's attraction (gravity), according to which the cosmic force points to the center of the universe, which at that time was considered the center of the Earth.It includes a specific scale of many liquids and solids (based on al-Biruni), and the history of the subject;Gravity of air;Observation of capillary phenomenonUse aerometer to measure the appreciation of density and liquid temperature;The theory of leverage;The application of balance in leveling and time measurement.
The analysis and excerpts from this book are published in Arabic and English.(1) in another book about balanceKhazini stressed that in the weighing process, the impact of temperature changes needs to be eliminated as much as possible.When al-Other studies by Khazini are considered to be the pioneers of Galileo.
Al-Harcini's full name is "aberfars"Rahman al-Mansur al-Khazini (or al-Khazin).He's about 1115.1121.He is a Greek slave.His master, Ali Al.Khazin àl-Malwaz arranged his good education in science and philosophy in Malva.Al-Khayzin sorted out the name al-Zij al-Mu’tabar al-Sinjar Ibn Malikshah Ibn Alp Arsal Khann named by the name of Sinjari (Dutch Sinjaric table), governor and khurasän after Sudan (1097-98 to 1157—58).
They gave the position of the star in 1115.1116.Before al-Uma al hachiniKhayyam did the biggest job in terms of balance.Sina and AliRazi has contributed to the theory of balance.
Banu Musan, prosperous during the reign of the caliphate (son of Musse)Ma men wrote a lot of mechanical works.They did an important job in balancing, called farastu 'or 'qarastun '.Al-Räzi (d.923—24) the specific gravity was investigated using a static hydraulic balance.
This balance is called al-Mizan al-Body balance sheet.(2) Mohammed ibn Ali ibn Rostam al-Khurasani is a famous clock builder, so he is called al-Clock manufacturer Sa'ati.Between 1146 and 1169, he built a clock in Bab jairun.
(Often referred to as 'Bab al-Ah, the door of the clock ).Al-Sadie was in charge of his clock until he died in 1184.85.(3) another Muslim mechanic in the 13 th century was abu 'l-Isa Ethan il Ibn Raz, son of the Mi ShangZamàn al-Jazari.
He's from 577-578 to 601—602 A.
H.
1181—1182 to 1205—1206 A.
C.
Ruler by Urtuqid Diyar Bakir, a'aJazirah.
He wrote a paper on knowledge of the invention of geometric machinery, entitled Kitab fi ma'rifat al-Hiyal al-Specially for Urtuqid Nasir al-Din mahm ü d (from 1200 to 1222 ).It mainly deals with hydraulic equipment (elepsydras, fountains, etc ).).From a technical point of view, this important work is interesting and represents the best Arabic work in applied mechanics.
It is divided into six parts.
The first part is the most important and it involves various types of elepsydras indicating equal or time hours.Muslims divide the day into twenty.Four hours.But they adopted another way of dividing.They divide the day and night into lengths ranging from 12 hours depending on the season.Christians in Europe also use this time.g.Italy until the 18 th century.The book was translated into German and a review was written.
(4)Al-Ridw á n, son of sáti, repaired and improved the clock, and also wrote a book describing its structure and use.This book is an important source for studying early Muslim clocks.Ridgewan is a mechanical expert, doctor and poet who has a certain understanding of literature and music.
He plays the flute.
He belonged to Hu Roshan.
He was appointed wazier by Prince Ayobi.
Faiz Ibrahim and his brother al-Mu’azzam Isã.Ridwan also wrote a supplement to Ibn sina's grape theory and wrote a review of his canon.(5) al-QaidaEgyptian mathematician and astronomers Kassem1251 A.
C.
Made a goal.
He may have made improvements on the water.Wheels or watermills.This improved waterWheels can still be seen on orentes, one of Hama's glory.He built the water.Wheel of Al-(naura)Muzzaffar al-Taqi al-Din Mahmud, ruler of Hama, from 1229 to 1244C.
(6) Roman Nasse, philosopherFarabi refutes the existence of a vacuum.He wrote an extraordinary article about air elasticity.This is an original study.(7) Muslim scientists are interested in determining the proportion of various substances.
The 9 th century scientist Sanad ibn'ali studied the specific gravity.Al-Biruni measured the specific gravity of 18 gems and metals.Ibn Sin and al-Rzi zi has also studied this issue.
Ibn Yunus (d.
1009 A.
C.
) Apply the pendulum to the measurement of time.Al-Biruni designed a time machine based on the Roman calendar.He built it at the mosque in Ghazna.But the imam of the mosque rejected it, saying it was based on a non-Muslim work.
At this Al-Biruni was very annoyed.
The decision of time is purely secular, he said.So it has little value whether it's based on a Muslim calendar or a non-Muslim calendarMuslim one.Convenience should only be considered.Al-Biruni mentioned some kind of well that was obtained by drilling the Earth into that water level, in which case the water was driven up in the natural spring water due to pressureHe correctly explained the role of these wells by communicating the principles of the vessel.
Muslims have developed the technology of bathing.They built a hot steam bath called "Hamm" (starting with Arab genham, meaning heating ).When European Crusaders came to the east and experienced the comfort of these baths, they introduced them to their own country.
Muslim is the first person to apply the directive attribute of the magnetic needle to determine the direction of the journey when traveling at sea.The Chinese were the first to discover the property.Maritime trade between Muslims is more important to the southern end of the needle than it is now in the north.
This may be because in places like Syria and Asia Minor, the southern tip points roughly to Mecca.So this end of the needle gives the general direction of Qiblah.In the West, the compass was first used by Italian sailors.
Some Muslims refer to the compass in their writings.For example, Balak al.Qabajaqi in his book entitled Kanz al-Ahjär describes the use of the floating compass he witnessed in l24243.Muslims were also the first to invent guns and cannons and use explosive materials in them.
The purpose of this invention is to throw bullets at the enemy from a long distance.The Chinese only use sodium nitrate.But only Muslims find and use the penetration of explosives.Historians usually write that, first of all, guns were used in the CREZ war, but it can be seen from many Muslim writings that guns were used long ago.
In one of the articles, there is a story that was besieged in 602 by a ruler named ya'qüb.H.(1205 A.C.) An African town, Mehdra, under the control of his chief rebel, attacked the wall with the help of firing guns and machines.From each machine there are many showers of big stones and fireballs.
The statement made by Ibn khaldün in his "The History of berber" also proves the use of firearms during war.He wrote: "Abu Yousef, the besieged Moroccan Sultan of 672.H.(1273 A.C.) City of sigira Massa.He installed siege instruments in front of the city.
These instruments are made up of Manjneeq, Urawe and Handam for throwing iron blocks.The pieces were filled with Handam boxes and the explosives placed behind them were lit.Its effect is strange, and its result can be called Allah's act.
One day, with the help of a stone thrown by mangienek, a part of the wall collapsed and attacked the city from there.Muslims have developed optical science.Ibn al-Latin Alhazen has made outstanding contributions to this science.Modern optics did start with him.Before Ibn al-Greek, Roman and Muslim scientists in hetherm generally believe that light is emitted from the eyes to the objects seen.
Plato believes that another set of light is emitted from the object seen.Alexander believes that vision lies in the lens of the eye.Sina and AliBiruni also thinks the light is from the object to the eye.
Ya's thoughts are very close to modern ideas.An atomic theory is put forward by atomists.Hunain Ibn ishq put forward a theory that is a bit like Plato in his work entitled "questions on the eyes.
In his view, the lens is the central organ of vision.Visual power from the brain and images from objects that are not present are all received in the lens.Al-Razi also shows in his monograph on the nature of vision that the eyes do not shine.
(11) Ibn al-Hashem changed the conventional view by proposing the theory that objects are seen by light passing through their eyes, not by the opposite process.Most of his successors don't agree with him,Both birüni and Ibn Sina are independent and fully agree with him.Ibn al-Haytham solved some optical problems based on his mathematical knowledge at that time.
Ibn al-Hashem deals with the structure of the eye, the illusion of vision, the perspective, the vision of the eyes, the outline, the vision of the shadow and the color, the ancient vision and perspective, and the new development, obscura, the problem of Alhazen, mirage, Comet, Milky Way, Rainbow, Halo, etc.Ibn al-Hashem conducted a study that included the known problem of al-Hasen.The details are as follows :-"Starting from two points on the plane of the circle, draw the line that meets on the circumference and make an equal angle to the normal of the point ".
This leads to the equation of the fourth degree.Ibn al-Haytham solves this problem by a right-angle curve that intersects the circle.He solved it, too.called al-The cubic equation of Jabareen.Ibn al-Hashem has made remarkable progress in experimental technology.
He studied the sphere and the Mirror.
Ball difference and transparency.
He noticed that the ratio between the angle of shot and the angle of reflection did not remain the same.He described the magnification of the lens and studied the atmospheric refraction.He said that Twilight only stops or starts when the sun is 19 ° below the horizon and tries to measure the height of the atmosphere on that basis.
He gave a better description of his eyes and vision.He tried to explain with both eyes vision and gave the correct explanation for the apparent increase in the size of the sun and moon near the horizon.He did his first math on the "dark box.Therefore, he deals with problems under at least seven disciplines including anatomy, physiology, psychology, mathematics, astronomy, physics and meteorology.
Full name of Ibn al-Haytham is Abu Ali Mohammed ibn al.Hasan Ibn al-Haitham.He is a native of Basra, born in 354.H.(965 A.C.).He immigrated to Egypt until he died.He is a noble and genius with many scientific knowledge.He was the greatest mathematician of his time and one of the greatest optician in history.
He is also proficient in medicine and Arabic.When the caliphateHakim bi-Amrillah, who likes philosophy very much, heard about Ibn al-Hetherm, he wants to see him very much.Al-Harkin was told that Ibn al-Hetherm revealed that if he was in Egypt, he might do something on the Nile issue, so it would be good in any case, whether the water level is high or low.
According to Ibn alHetherm, the river is falling from the height of Egyptian territory.Hear this report.Harkin is getting more and more fond of meeting Ibn Al.Haitham .Al-Mr. King sent him a large sum of money and persuaded him to come to his court.
Ibn al-Hetherm traveled to Egypt.
When he arrived near CairoHarkin went to pick him up.They met in a village near Bà B al.Qahirah (Gate of Cairo ).Al-Hakim paid tribute to him, provided him with all the facilities, and asked him to fulfill his promise on the Nile.A group of workers were provided to help him carry out his plan.
When Ibn al-Hetherm investigated the site and came to a place called "janadil", who was aware of the difficulties involved.He found himself unable to fulfill his promise and he became very ashamed and now he is afraidTo get rid of him, he played a madman and was in a state of madness until al-Hãkim.Then he regained his mind and settled in Qubbah near jamiamenHe is engaged in writing books.
He died 1038.
Ibn al-Haytham is the author of many works.He made a summary of Yashi's work and wrote a review.He also summed up many of Galen's medical works.
He has 15 books on mathematics and physics and 44 books on metaphysics and physics.His books include books about plants and about simple and compound drug properties.(12) his kitab al-Manazir (optical thesaurus) is one of the main classics that have influenced scientific thinking for more than six centuries.
Latin, Muslim and Hebrew writers such as Roger Bacon, John Pecham, witlow, Ahmed ibn Idris alQarafi, kutabalDin al-Shir zaizi, Levi Ben Gerson adapted their work according to this great book.Ibn Sin solar conducted an in-depth study of light.He observed that if light is emitted due to a light source spraying a certain particle, the speed of light must be limited.
(13) Al-Biruni noticed that the speed of light is much higher than the speed of sound.(14)Nasir al-Din al-Tusi wrote two books about optics.One of them, called Al-Mabahith fi In 'Ik Kumar s al-Shu'a' at Wa of wa in 'itafiha (study of light reflection and refraction) contains proof of equal incidence and reflection angles.
Another name is kitab al-Tahrir Square-Manãzir.In the preface, the author comments that people perceive objects because of the light they send out, but everything happens as if the light was coming out of our eyes.(15)Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi, (d.1311) he is one of the greatest scientists of all time, expressing his views on optics in his astronomical works.
In one of these works, titled "nih yat al-Idr Zaik Dir zaiyat fi al-Aflak (highest understanding of sphere knowledge );He discussed the problem of geometric optics, the nature of vision, and finally the rainbow.He was the first to describe the rainbow satisfactorily.His interpretation of the rainbow is based on his study of light passing through transparent spheres (drops of water.
He found that the rainbow formed when the light was reflected twice and reflected once in the humid atmosphere (or in the case of a secondary rainbow.(16) another important physicist and mathematician in the 14 th century, Kamal al-Din Abu’l-Hasan al-Farisi.He wrote a book called "tanchihe Al ."Manazir (optical correction) is a detailed and original review of Ibn al-Kitb al of Hashem-Book of Optics.
It covers not only physical and physiological optics, but also Meteorology, perspective and many other disciplines.It includes comments on continuous perspective, color effects, etc.Kamal al-In order to avoid the ball gap, Din recommends the use of curved lenses.
He described the refraction of light.
According to George Sarton, this statement suggests the following facts:The speed of light is limited, but very large.The speed of light in different media is inversely proportional to the optical density (different from the material density ).The second of these facts seems to be the contrast between the wave theory of light and the theory of microparticles.
Kamãl al-Din carried out some experiments on camera occlusion and improved Ibn al-Haitham.He showed the image obtained through light through a narrow hole on the screen of the dark room, unrelated to the shape of ho1e, the smaller the hole, the clearer the image.It is also proved that the images of many objects are formed separately on the screen, but the images and directions are opposite.
With the help of the camera, he observed the eclipse and the movement of clouds and birds.(17)Al-Hasan al-Ramah Najm al-Din al-Ahadab (Hunchback) wrote an article on military topics.He is thriving in Syria.He wrote two papers on equestrian and war art.
Furusiyah wa'l Munasab al-(Equestrian and war strategy), (2) Nihayat al-Sue Val umania Fei TA alumA’mal al-Furusiyah.The first paper deals with military issues such as military operations, the use of guns, bows, siege engines, and maritime operations and fire fighting communications.Contains a variety of fireworks formula;Al-Hassan believes that the stone is the basic substance of fireworks.
He explained the method of preparing and purifying potash with potash and repeated crystals.George Sutton believes that this is more important than it seems, because the impurities of the nitrate Stone are hygroscopic and therefore easily destroy its value.It is one thing to find saltpeter and its use, and it is another thing to purify it.
(18) Muslims have improved the art of shipbuilding by teaching Mediterranean seafarers to build lighter sailing boats --Ships or caravels (garaf), mix their ships with tar with gatran (Fr goudron, It) in Arabic.caltrame)—Handle sails and cables (Ar.habl).(19) reference :-1.A1-Hackney, 'Abd al-Man al-Haikang, Dekan, Hyderabad, 1359.H.pp.1—170.2.Al-Ali ibn Usuf Tariq al-Leipzig Hukama, Page 1903.
271.
3.
George Sutton, an introduction to the History of Science, Washington, D. C., canig Institute, Vol. 1951.I, p.632.4.Ibid., p.631.5.Ibid., 632.6.Ibid., vol.II, Part II, p.623.7.Al-Qifti, op.cit., p.277.8.Sarton, op.cit., vol.I, p.707.9.Ibid., Vol.II, Part I, p.24.10.Ali, tamardon-e-Hyderabad, (Lebon's Urdu translation of French works), Hyderabad Dekan, p.441.11.Ibid., vol I, p.609.12.Ibid., p.721.13 Ismail BashaHadia al bagdadyArifin, Istanbul, volume 1951II, p.
66.
14.
Sarton, op.
cit.
, p.
707.
15.
Ibid.
, p.
709-713.
16.
Ibid.
vol.
Part Two Page Two1009.
17.
Ibid.
,p.
1018.
18.
Ibid.
Volume Three, Part One707.
Al-Kamal-farrisseyDin, Tãnqih al-Manazil, Dekai, Hyderabad, India.19.Sarton op.cit., Vol.II, Part II, p.1039.20.Briffault, Dr.Robert, creation of mankind, Islamic Book Foundation, page 1980205
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